MICRO TEACHING

  1. INTRODUCATION:

     Micro teaching was first introduced at the Stanford University, USA in 1913. The Stanford teacher education staff members sought to identify isolate and build training programmes for original teaching skills. Micro teaching methods help to improve teaching competence.

D.D Tiwari was the first to take up a project on micro teaching at the government general pedagogical institute at Allahabad in 1967. This was followed by G.B.Shah who tried an experiment in micro-teaching with the help of a tape recorder facility and conducted a serious of research project and training for teaching education in all status and micro-teaching is a part of B.ED programme of nearly all Indian universities.

2. MICRO TEACHING

2. 1 MEANING

            Micro teaching is a laboratory technique of teacher training in which the complexity of normal class room teaching is simplified.  Micro teaching is relatively a new technique in teacher training programme.  It was first adopted at Stanford University, U.S.A. in 1961, by Dwight W. Allen.  This was imported to India in the late sixties.

            Micro teaching is the systematic training system in which the latest well-known principles of learning theory have been incorporated.  Micro teaching procedure aims at simplifying the complexities of regular teaching process and engaging the trainees in an effective method of teaching.

  • DEFINITION

            According to B.K. Passi, “Micro teaching is a training technique which requires student teachers to teach a simple concept using specified teaching skill to less number of students in a short duration of time”.

Allen defines micro teaching as a ‘scaled down teaching encounter in class size and period’.

2.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF MICRO TEACHING

  1. It is a scaled down teaching.
  2. It is less complex than regular teaching.
  3. It involves lesser number of students, usually 5 to 10.
  4. Its duration is short-about 5 to 10 minutes.

2.4 STEPS IN MICRO TEACHING

            Many people in India now feel that the best way to organize teachers education is by starting with micro teaching, moving into link-practice and then to full class teaching.

  1. Preparation

This can be provided by lectures and demonstration or by the use of packages.  The steps consists of the definition of the skill its importance, the components of the skill and the method of analyzing or coding the skill and advice on planning the lesson.

  1. Planning

In planning the lesson, emphasize should be on the skill and the trainee could select content which will enable them to practise the various components of the skills.  The teacher will have to modify his / her lesson or plan according to the responses of the pupils.  Hence a general shape of lesson with opportunities for practicing the various components may be prepared.

  1. Teaching

The Micro teaching experience can be done by using either pupil from local school or peers (other trainee) the lesson can be observed either by a supervisor or by a peer supervisor using a coding sheet on or a tape or video tape.  Each of the trainee teacher teaches for 5 to 10 minutes.

      Some of the trainees act as students.  One or two are in change to observe the lesson for 5 minutes lesson at every 30 seconds, the observer may mark the component of the skill, practised in specially designed coding sheet.

  1. Critique or Feedback

The feedback section may be led by the supervisors experience or peers who have done the coding.  The critique emphasizes the desirable behaviour practice and the modifications needed for re-teaching.

  • Re-Planning

On the basis of the feed back the trainee re-plan her/his plan.  So as his/her emphasis is on the components of the s ill which he/she has not practised in the first teaching.

  • Re-Teaching

The trainee then teaches the lesson; the same observation procedure is again followed.

  • Re-Critique or Re-Feedback

Here a comparison is made of the coding with those of the first lesson and differences if any are discussed.

            The above steps can be written in the form of a cycle as follows.

2.5 CYCLE OF MICRO-TEACHING

Re-Feed Back  Teach  
Feed Back  
Re-Teach  
Re-plan  

2.6 ADVANTAGES OF MICRO TEACHING

  1. The teaching is made simple with one skill, for a small group and for a short duration of time.
  2. Immediate feedback is given.
  3. One can concentrate on some specific aspects of teaching and learning.
  4. Teaching becomes more meaningful with feedback and additional trials.    
  5. All the activities in Micro teaching set up can be recorded and evaluated effectively.
  6. It gradually prepares the trainees for macro teaching.
  7. Classroom interaction can be objectively studied.
  8. It is an effective device for the modification of teacher behaviour.
  9. It can develop confidence in teaching.

2.7 LIMITATIONS OF MICRO TEACHING

  1. It is skill oriented; content is not emphasized.
  2. It emphasizes specific skills; but may result in the neglect of integrated skills.
  3. It covers only a few specific skills.
  4. It may raise administrative problems while arranging micro lessons.
  • TEACHING SKILLS

      Micro teaching is used for developing certain teaching skills.  A teaching skill is defined as a set of teacher behaviors and activities which are especially effective in bringing about desired changes in teacher trainees.  There are various teaching skills which can be developed among teacher trainees. The important skills are as follows.

  1. Introduction of a lesson
  2. Explaining
  3. Illustrating with Examples
  4. Probing Questions                                                                             
  5. Reinforcement
  6. Stimulus Variations
  7. Effective use of Blackboard
  8. Encouraging Pupils Participation                              
  9. Achieving Closure
  • DESCRIPTIONS OF TEACHING SKILLS

3.1.1 SKILL OF PROBING QUESTIONS

            When a question is put in the classroom, there are a number of possibilities for pupil response situations such as no response, wrong response, partially correct response, incomplete response or correct response.  The skill of probing questions is going deep into pupil responses through step by step questioning with a view to eliciting the criterion response.

Sub Components

Prompting

            When we are asking questions we may give clue to the students to get the correct answer.  The clue may be partial answer regarding of the questions.

Seeking Further Information

            In order to make the students understand to the concept, we may get further information from the students.  This may be an example or the characteristics of the concept.

Refocusing

            In order to make the students to understand the concept we may compare present concept to the old concept.

Redirecting

            If the student is not able to give correct answer the same question will be directed to the next student.  He may be helped to the correct answer to that question.

Developing Critical Awareness

            The questions which can be answered by the student with the help of thinking ability is called developing critical awareness questions.  Usually ‘How’ and ‘why’ questions come in this category.

EPISODE-I

Name of the trainee:

Name of the skill:

Name of the subject:

Topic:

Date :

Duration:

  • SKILL OF EXPLAINING

A pupil is required to learn a number of concepts, phenomena, generalizations, procedures, functions and reasons for certain occurrences.  He is to learn about their attributes, constituent elements, relationship and applications.  A teacher organizes a number of learning experiences in the classroom towards the end.  He uses a number of interrelated statements related to the concepts, phenomena, generalization and functions with a view to developing in pupils an understanding about them.  The set of interrelated statement used for this purpose is termed as explanation and the process is termed as explaining.

Sub Components

Cognitive Link

            It is a precious process of making connection between present concept to the already known concepts.  This can be done with the help of examples.

Illustrations

            The teacher may explain the concept by giving examples.  He may use diagrams, models etc.

Comparing and Contrasting

            It is a process of discriminating the two similar concept of particular attitude.

Meaningful Repetition

            The teacher will repeat the concept again and again.  The repetition may be done by asking questions or more telling the formula.  The purpose of repetition is to make the students to fix the idea in the mind.

Linking words

            Because, so, that, in the meantime, that’s why, moreover, even though, as a result, but, therefore, like that, etc.

EPISODE-II

Name of the trainee:

Name of the skill:

Name of the subject:

Topic:

Date :

Duration:

  • SKILL OF INCREASING PUPIL PARTICIPATION

Every teacher wants to know how to motivate students to participate, and how to nurture more involved students and fewer apathetic ones. With a little extra planning, that is possible. The goal of increasing participation is not to have every student participate in the same way or at the same rate. Instead, it is to create an environment in which all participants have the opportunity to learn and in which the class explores issues and ideas in depth, from a variety of viewpoints.

Questioning Verbal (QV)

            In order to increase the student participation in their class verbal question can be asked.

Questioning Non-verbal (QNV)

            A student is not able to give the correct answer, the same questions is directed to the next student through the gestures.

Verbal encouraging (VE)

If a student has given correct answer the teacher has to encourage the student by wording, good, xcellent, very good, … etc.

 Non-verbal encouraging (NVE)

            If a student has given correct answer the teacher can use gestures like smile at the student to accepting their answer.

Pausing

            In order to stress an important point the teacher can give can pause in his speech.

Pupil Verbal Response / Initiation (PVR/I)

            This refers to students answers to the teachers questions. Sometimes the student will ask questions for getting classification.

                         EPISODE-III

Name of the trainee:

Name of the skill:

Name of the subject:

Topic:

Date :

Duration:

  • LINK LESSON PRACTICE

            A link between micro teaching and macro teaching definitely helps trainees to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in the micro teaching sessions.  Link practice is the term used to describe such a bridge of normally involves the investigation of all the skills.

            There is a very big contrast between micro teaching and macro teaching practice.  Micro teaching is a scaled down model in terms of class size, time and aspects of teaching.  Further, while micro teaching practiced under simulated conditions, macro teaching presents problems of classroom management.  Hence in the link practice, the trainees are given the chance of teaching school pupils.

            Link practice sessions are normally arranged with about 20 pupils for about half the normal class period 15-20 minutes.  The trainer prepares a series of a short lesson on a single unit and teachers each lesson for 20 minutes using the appropriate skills particularly to the content.  The number of lessons in link practice  also flexible but should cover adequately the topic that the trainee has chosen.  In link practice lessons, trainees gain sufficient practice and control over the use of components of the skills appropriately with the content.

            At the end of each lesson the trainees should have a review with the factor, not only of that lesson but also of the general strategy of the set of lessons.

            The integration of sub skill is called link practice or link lessons.  There are many methods for link practice.  One of the methods is that after practicing there sub skills separately; the trainee may combine all the three sub skills in a lesson of 10 minutes.  He then practices another three sub skills separately and links them.  He then combines all the six sub skills in a single lesson of 20 minutes.  And so on till all the sub skills are combined in a macro lesson of 40 minutes an detaching a full class.

                                  Micro teaching        Link practice     Macro teaching

                                           5-7 pupils       15-20 pupils       40 pupils

                                           5-7 minutes     15-20 minutes   40 minutes

                                           One skill          2-3 skills           Many skills

LINK LESSON

Name of the trainee:

Name of the skills:

Name of the subject:

Topic:

Date :

Duration:

  • CONCLUSION

           Teaching is a very efficient and complex activity. There are number of skills involved in it which needs on its individual attention of the students and teacher to make the teaching effective. Through, micro teaching all these skills can be practiced and mastered to some extent. It is a wonderful opportunity given to cash trainees and it will help to overcome stage fear. All the skills are allotted for good teaching practice.