Unit – II


Aims of Teaching History

  • To interpret human behaviour
  • To clarify and examine values
  • To establish a sense of self-identity
  • To impart mental training
  • To impart moral training
  • To transmit culture
  • To understand local environment
  • To promote international understanding
  • To give a clear concept of time, space and society
  • To develop certain skills and habits
  • To cultivate a forward look
  • To promote self understanding
  • To teach more principles

Objectives of Teaching History

  • Acquaintance with the environment
  • Interest in socio-economic institutions
  • Appreciation of cultural heritage
  • Sifting of material
  • Development of broad mindness
  • Development of social commitment
  • Faith in the destiny of nation
  • Development of insight into human relations
  • Effective participation in social affairs
  • Promotion of ideals enshrined in the constitution
  • Maximization of economic and social welfare
  • Promotion of Peace
  • Profitable use of leisure time
  • Foundation of specialization
  • Many sided development of the personality
  • Acquisition of the skills and habits of self learning
  • Developing aesthetic appreciation and creatively through participating in aesthetic activities.


  • Develop memorization and observation
  • Increase thinking power, social values
  • Tolerance, perseverance
  • Patriotism
  • Ethics
  • Preservation
  • Social development
  • International understanding

Elementary Stage

  • Biographies – related stories
  • Emotions should be developed
  • Use many models
  • Dramatization (important social events
  • Day to day life style of village – celebrations, occupations, transports etc.
  • Comparing present events with past events
  • Participate in productive process of community life and serve community
  • Respect of national symbols
  • Develop democracy
  • Know the constitutions and values enshrined
  • National integration
  • Social, cultural and ethical values
  • Economic development of the country
  • Citizenship development
  • Create self-confidence
  • Encourage thinking and self learning

High and Higher Secondary Stage

  • Scientific method (Topical method, unit plan, laboratory method, source method)
  • Sequential way
  • Cause and relationship
  • Stages of evolution
  • Achievement of great leaders
  • Administration of the country
  • World history
  • Research aptitude
  • Integrate national and international histories
  • Patriotism, perseverance, tolerance
  • Increase thinking power
  • Use working models
  • Integrate early and present periods
  • Citizenship training
  • Self learning
  • Participation in social activities
  • Develop aesthetic values
  • Appreciation of basic unity of mankind
  • Develop knowledge, understanding, critical thinking, practical skills, interest, attitudes, etc.
  • Analyse historical problems
  • Show respect towards other people’s opinion, ideas, beliefs and ways of life.
  • Visit places of historical interest, archaeological sets, museums and archives.
  • Collect old coins and other historical materials.

Blooms’ Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

            The educational objectives are broad and they are related to educational system and schools.  The educational objective with the help of teaching or learning objectives.  The educational objectives may be achieved by organizing teaching from primary to university levels whereas teaching objectives may be realized within a period of 40 minutes duration.  For example: educational objectives are ‘to develop the feeling of national integration’.  This includes several teaching objectives – knowledge, comprehension and application of national integration.  The educational objectives may be achieved with in a long period.

      B.S. Bloom has classified the objectives in three categories:

  • Cognitive objectives
  • Affective objectives
  • Psychomotor objectives

The cognitive domain of the taxonomy consists of six broad categories of cognitive learning arranged in an order to increase complexity:  knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.  For each of these broad categories of cognitive learning, the taxonomy identifies specific learning outcome in behavioural terms and each of these educational objectives may be evaluated.  This taxonomy may assist the teacher in clarifying his educational objectives and modifying his teaching practices so that relevant, important outcome of learning are identified and realized.

Cognitive Domain

  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

Affective Domain

  • Receiving (Attending)
  • Responding
  • Valuing
  • Organization
  • Characterization

Psychomotor Domain

  • Perception
  • Imitation
  • Manipulation
  • Precision
  • Articulation
  • Naturalisation


            The term lesson is interpreted in different ways by different people.  Generally, teachers take it as a task to be covered in a class period of 40-50 minutes.  A lesson is defined as a blue print or a plan of action for transacting compact portion of the curriculum, within the duration of a period.

            Carter V. Good defines a lesson plan as. “an outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented”.  It means a plan of action.

Aims of Lesson Plan

            The lesson plan is expected to show:

  • That item of the knowledge that the students have already acquired which will be pre-requisites for assimilating the new items.
  • The direction towards which the students have to be carried and the new subject material that they have to be taught.
  • The objectives – general and specific – proposed to be realised by the lesson concerned.
  • The lesson plan provides the teacher with a thorough analysis of the learning material, guidelines for transacting the curriculum material concerned and for evaluating the outcomes in tune with the anticipated goals.       

Steps in Planning (Herbartian Steps)

  • Introduction

            It pertains to preparing and motivating children to actively participate in the lesson content by linking it to the previous knowledge of the student, by arousing curiosity of the children and by making an appeal to their senses.

  • Presentation

            It involves the stating of the object of lesson and exposure of students to new information.  This is the performance stage of the instructional task, in which the teacher as well as the learners actively participates.

  • Association

            New ideas or knowledge should be associated to the daily life situations by citing suitable examples and by drawing comparisons with the related concepts.

  • Generalisation

            The students are encouraged and helped to draw the conclusions on their own.  Teacher should guide the students in case there is difficulty for them in during so.

  • Application

            In this step the knowledge gained is applied to certain new situations.  The students make use of generalizations in order to see for themselves if the generalizations are valid or not.

  • Recapitulation

            The teacher tries to ascertain whether his students have understood and grasped the subject matter or not.  This is used for assessing the effectiveness of the lesson by asking questions on the content of the lesson.  It would also register what is learnt in the minds of the learners.

Advantages of Planning a Lesson

  • It ensures definite aim for each day’s work in terms of learning materials as well as learning objectives.
  • It makes the work regular and systematic
  • It creates self-confidence and self-reliance in the teacher
  • It ensures appropriate use of aids at the appropriate time.
  • It prevents wastage of time, as every step has been planned with forethought.
  • It necessitates planning of assignments appropriate to the mental level of students.
  • It establishes proper connection between different lessons and thereby ensures continuity.

Instructional Objectives

            An objective should include both the kind of behavioural outcome expected and the content.  Content is the medium for the realization of the desired behaviour.

Specification of Instructional Objectives

            The work of identifying well-defined behavioural changes requires that broader objectives should be broken down into more specific ones to a limit where they stand fully clarified and delimited.  This step is often known as specifying objectives and its product comes to be known as ‘specifications’.  The specifications are thus the ‘behavioural outcomes’ expected as a result of learning experience emanating from a learning situation.  It is an exercise in meaningful analysis.

            A practical way of getting at the specifications of an objective is first to state the objective, comprehend what we mean by it and then to seek answers to the question ‘what the students will be able to do the exhibit to us the achievement of the particular objective on their part’.  The answers will be specifications.

Sl. No.General ObjectivesSpecific Objectives
1KnowledgeRecalls facts, terms, concepts, principles, trends.Recognises facts, terms, concepts, principles, trends,etc.Reads information from various forms of representation of data ie. Maps, charts, diagrams, graphs, etc.
2UnderstandingDiscriminates, classifies, compares and contrasts, identifies relationships, detects the points of emphasis and the trends of arguments, cites illustrations, detects errors and fallacies and corrects them, explains (analysis), gives reasons or advances arguments, interprets data presented in different forms.
3ApplicationAnalysis the unfamiliar situations or problems: (a) find out what is given and what is required, (b) recalls knowledge relevant to the situation, (c) judges the sufficiency or insufficiency, adequacy or inadequacy of data or any other evidences for solving the problem.Establishes relationships, selects the most appropriate method of attack, draws inferences and makes generalizations, makes predictions regarding the probable outcomes of a given situation, criticizes, evaluates.
4SkillsDraws maps, charts, tables, diagrams, graphs etc. from the given data.Translates data from one form of presentation to another.Prepares models.
5InterestVoluntarily studies literature related to social studies and tries to know about the inherent issues and problems.Spends leisure in trying to know about civic problems and issues and exerts in finding solutions to them.Closely observes civic and political processes and changes at local, national and international levels.Enthusiastically participates in excursions, visits and field trips to places of civic and political activities (eg. Panchayats, Municipalities, Assemblies, etc.).Enjoys attending and participating in debates, symposium, discussions on civic and political problems.Enjoys writing articles and preparing pamphlets, brochures etc. on topics related to social studies.
6AttitudesRespects the views, opinions and problems of others and displays sympathy and fellow feeling towards them: (a) shows tolerance, (b) controls emotions and displays restraint, (c) develops social awareness.Able to examine the present situations in the light of a historical perspective.Assumes responsibility in co-operative and civic activities.Shows sympathetic understanding of the problems of people belonging to different social, religious, linguistic and cultural groups.Realises the importance of the contributions made by the leaders of the nation in different spheres.Develops a sense of respect for the national flag, the national anthem, the national emblem and the constitution of one’s country and those of other countries of the world.Develops faith in democratic values.




 It is nothing but a segment of a subject matter in which the various items of knowledge are meaning fully linked to each other as a component/ a single entity.It is not a compound of lessons.It is a block of related subject matters.



 It is a design with pre determined objectives and learning activities for the objectives.

Characteristics of unit plan:-

  1. Aims should be clear
  2. Provide clear activity for the students
  3. Cater to the need of the children
  4. Give provision for evaluation
  5. Suggest, teaching aids (strategy to used; co-curricular activities.)
  6. Give complete time limit.

Types of unit plan:-

  1. Resource unit
  2. Learning unit (plan of instruction designed for the unit)

Steps in forming unit:-

  1. Content analysis
  2. Objectives and specification
  3. Learning activities
  4. Evaluation procedure.

Format of a unit plan:




Name of the unit:

Major objectives




S.NoNumber of PeriodsSub unitsTeaching learning pointsspecificationMethod Media approachesEvaluation


Teachers are given curriculum.

Teachers plan their teaching various units lesson points – time- learning out it includes;

  1. Working days
  2. Units
  3. Educational objectives
  4. Periods
  5. Days for examination
  6. Lessons to be covered in a month
  7. Teaching aids to be used
  8. Plan for unit Test.
  9. Plan for co-curricular activities.